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Глава в книге
Тест на распознавание книжных заголовков для младших школьников: пилотное исследование

Урывская Д. А., Староверова В. Н., Лопухина А. А. и др.

В кн.: Наука и образование: проблемы и перспективы [Электронный ресурс]: Материалы XXVI Международной научно-практической конференции молодых ученых и студентов, посвящённой 85-летию АГГПУ им. В. М. Шукшина (Бийск, 5 апреля 2024 г.). Бийск: АГГПУ им. В.М. Шукшина, 2024. С. 240-244.

Grammar in Language Models: BERT Study

Chistyakova K., Kazakova Tatiana.

Linguistics. WP BRP. НИУ ВШЭ, 2023. No. 115.

В.Ю. Апресян выступила на конференции "Metaphor in the 21 century: New Cognitive Domains", проходившей 3-4 декабря в Костельон де ла Плана, Испания, с докладом "Metaphor in Grammar: Mapping across syntactic domains"

Аннотацию доклада можно найти в тексте новости.

Аннотация доклада (по-английски):

Metaphor in grammar: Mapping across syntactic domains

Traditionally emotion metaphor has been treated as a lexical phenomenon manifested in the polysemy of words and expressions. The present paper expands emotion metaphor studies into the grammaticalization domain.

It focuses on syntactic emotion metaphor, as it is manifested in the metaphorical mapping across syntactic domains, i.e. in metaphor-driven polysemy of constructions used to express arguments of emotion words. Previously, metaphoric relations in constructions were studied in [Sullivan 2013], particularly in ditransitive and resultative constructions, and in a collective volume on metonymy and metaphor in grammar [Panther, Thornburg & Barcelona 2009].

However, syntactic metaphor has never been considered with respect to the emotion domain, yet it is the phenomenon that underpins the diversity of morpho-syntactic expression of the Stimulus argument in Russian psych verbs. While the Experiencer role in Russian emotion verbs is coded as nominative or dative, there is no uniform expression of Stimulus. Different emotion types require specialized Stimulus expression: dative for‘to rejoice’, instrumental for ‘to be proud’, genitive for ‘to fear’ and ‘to be ashamed of’, various prepositional constructions for ‘JOY’, ‘SADNESS’ and ‘ANGER’. This phenomenon is not unheard of typologically and there have been attempts to explain it by lexical economy, or inheritance of verbal construction patterns from non-psych meanings of the corresponding verbs (Klein, Kutscher 2002).  

However, Russian psych verbs for the most part are not metaphorically derived from non-psych verbs, therefore syntactic diversity requires a different explanation. They demonstrate metaphoric mapping, but on syntactic level. As corpus analysis shows, all constructions used to encode Stimulus in psych verbs are predominantly used to express other thematic roles.  

Therefore, in each case, the role of Stimulus is the result of mapping from the domain of another semantic role [cf. Lakoff 1990 on metaphoric semantic roles], the latter determined by the type of emotion and the event structure of the verb (stimulus, desires, behavior). Since the types of emotional stimuli and corresponding desires and behaviors vary greatly in different emotion clusters (anger, joy, sadness, pride, fear etc.), these ontological differences receive semantic and syntactic reflection.

Thus, Stimulus in radovat’sja ‘to rejoice’ is metaphorized as Addressee (dative), possibly because it implies a stimulus-directed overt manifestation.

Anger often involves a violent reaction, hence Stimulus in serdit’sja‘to get angry’ is syntactically expressed as a Patient of aggressive physical actions (‘at’ construction).

Certain types of sadness, such as gorevat’or skorbet’‘to grieve, to woe’ involve crying over a dead body, hence they are encoded with locative ‘over’.

Pride involves desire for attention, therefore Stimulus in gordit’sja‘to be proud’ is expressed by instrumental, usually reserved for encoding instruments or body parts moved to attract attention, as in maxat’ rukoj‘to wave one’s hand-INSTR’.  

Lexical emotion metaphor (Lakoff, Johnson 1980, K övecses 2000) explains many types of regular cross-linguistic polysemy. However, diversity in the morphosyntactic properties of emotion verbs is explained by syntactic metaphor. Applying this notion to psych verbs allows one to demonstrate how their syntax is inherently driven by the ontological properties of the corresponding feelings. 


Klein K., Kutscher S. 2002. Psych-verbs and Lexical Economy. In Theorie des Lexikons 122.  

Kövecses Z. 2000. Metaphor and Emotion. Cambridge University Press.

Lakoff G., M. Johnson. 1980. Metaphors we live by. Chicago; London.

Lakoff G. The Syntax of Metaphoric Semantic Roles . 1990. In  Semantics and the Lexicon, James Pustejovsky (Ed.), Studies in Linguistics and Philosophy, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht.

Panther K.-U.,  Thornburg L. L., Barcelona , A. (Eds.). 2009 . Metonymy and metaphor in grammar (Human Cognitive Processing 25). Amsterdam and  and Philadelphia: Benjamins.

Sullivan K. Frames and constructions in metaphoric language. 2013. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.